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Save searches from Google Scholar, PubMed. Continue with Facebook. Sign up with Google. So this means we have to change our pop music lessons, at least every few years, so that they remain relevant.
Then, of course, there is the issue of appropriateness. SO many pop songs are just not appropriate. Maybe kids don't realize the true meaning of the song—as was so often the case with music I listened to growing up—but still, there are songs we just can't do, no matter how much the kids love them.
After considering the reasons why I wanted to include pop music more, and why creating lessons using pop music is tricky, I have come up with a few ideas over the last couple of years that have worked for me and my students.
I am truly at the beginning of this journey, so will blog more as more ideas come to me! Here are a few ideas to get started on your journey:. Then when you change to a different motion, they do too!
Halfway through the song, you could have student volunteers lead the beat! This works even better if the students have done this same activity with Beethoven or Brahms or Miles Davis…they they try it with pop music!
I have recently found a couple songs with Orff accompaniment on Pinterest. Here are arrangements to check out:.
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It is therefore erroneous to suppose that the northern Spaniards on their southward march fell in with nume- rous kinsmen, of wider culture and of a higher civilisa- tion, whose everyday speech was unintelligible to them, and who prayed to Christ in the tongue of Muhammad.
Such cases may have occurred, but as the rarest excep- tions. Not less unfounded is the theory that Castilian is a fusion of southern academic Arabic with barbarous northern Latin.
Lastly, it must be borne in mind that the variety of Romance which finally prevailed in Spain was not the speech of the northern highlanders, but that of the MuzArabes of the south and the centre.
In the eighth century this Basque invasion was avenged. The Spaniards, concentrating in the ;! Deriving from the langtic d'ocy Catalan divides into pld Catald and Lemosl — the common speech and the literary tongue.
Vidal de Besalu calls his own Provengal language limosina or lemoziy and the name, taken from his popular treatise Dreita Maneira de TrobaVy was at first limited to literary Provencal ; but endless confusion arises from the fact that when Catalans took to composing, their poems were likewise said to be written in lengua lemosina.
Galician, now little more than a simple dialect, is artifici- ally kept alive by the efforts of patriotic minor poets; but its literary influence is extinct, and the distinguished figures of the province, as Dona Emilia Pardo Bazdn, naturally seek a larger audience by writing in Castilian.
What befell in Italy and France befell in Spain. Partly through political causes, partly by force of superior culture, the language of a single centre ousted its rivals.
As France takes its speech from Paris and the lie de France, as Florence domi- nates Italy, so Castile d ictates her language to all the Spains.
The dominant type, then, of Spanish is the Castilian, which, as the most potent form, has outlived its brethren, and, with trifling variations, now extends, not only over Spain, but as far west as Lima and Val- paraiso, and as far east as the Philippine Islands : in effect, "from China to Peru.
The first allusion to any distinct variety of Romance is found in the life of a certain St. Mummolin who was Bishop of Noyen, succeeding St.
Eloi in A reference to the Spanish type of Romance is found as far back as ; but the authenticity of the docu- ment is very doubtful.
The breaking-up of Latin in Spain is certainly observable in Bishop Odoor's will under the date of The celebrated Strasburg Oaths, the oldest of Romance instruments, belong to the year ; and, in an edict of , Charles the Bald mentions, as a thing apart, "the customary language" — usitato vocabulo — of the Spaniards.
There is, however, no exist- ing Spanish manuscript so ancient, nor is there any monument as old, as the Italian Carta di Capua The Charter called the Fuero de Avilh of which is in bable or Asturian, not Castilian , has long passed for the oldest example of Spanish, on the joint and several authority of Gonzdlez Llanos, Ticknor,.
These intricate questions of authority and ascription may well be left unsettled, for legal documents are but the dry bones of letters.
These, probably, are the jetsam of a cargo of literature which has foundered. Doubtless there were other older, shorter songs or cantares on the Cid's prowess ; there unquestionably were songs upon Bernaldo de Carpio and upon the Infantes de Lara which are rudely preserved in asso- nantic prose passages of the CrSnica General.
At most this is a pious opinion. But in any case the cantilena theory is idle ; for, since no cantilenas exist, no evidence is — or can be — forthcoming to eke out an attractive but unconvincing thesis.
In default of testi- mony and of intrinsic probability, the theory depends solely on bold assertion, and it suffices to say that the cantilena hypothesis is now abandoned by all save a knot of fanatical partisans.
The exploits of the battle-field would, in all likeli- hood, be the first subjects of song ; and the earliest singers of these deeds — gesta — would appear in the chieftain's household.
Odyssey the aoihiyi or professional sin. The trovadores are generally authors ; the juglares are mere executants — singers, declaimers, mimes, or simple mountebanks.
Of these lowlier performers one type has been immortalised in M. But between trovadores and juglares it is not possible to draw a hard-and-fast line : their functions intermingled.
Some few trovadores anticipated Wagner by eight or nine centuries, composing their own music-drama on a lesser scale. In cases of special endowment, the composer of words and music delivered them to the audience.
Subdivisions abounded. There were the juglares or singing-actors, the remendadores or mimes, the cazurros or mutes with duties undefined, resembling those of the intelligent " super.
There were juglares de boca reciters and juglares de pMola musicians. The normal rule was that the juglar recited the trovadores verses ; but, as already said, an occasional trovador Alfonso Alvarez de Villasandino, at Seville, in the fifteenth century, is a case in point would declaim his own ballad.
In the juglares hands the original was cut or padded to suit the hearers' taste. He subordinated the verses to the music, and gave them maimed, or arabesqued with estribillos refrains , to fit a popular air.
The commonest arrangement was that the juglar de boca sang the trovador's words, the juglar de pifiola accompanying on some simple instrument, while the remendador gave the story in pantomime.
With the Greeks the minstrel attains at last I an important post in the chieftain's train. Seated on a high chair inlaid with silver, he entertains the guests, or guards the wife of Agamemnon, his patron and his friend.
Just so does Phemios sing amid the suitors of Penelope. It was not always thus. B entley has to ld us in his pointed way that " poor Homer in those circHm- stances and early times had never such aspiring thoughts" as mankind and everlasting fame ; and that " he wrote a sequel of songs and rhapsodies to be sung by himself for small earnings and good cheer, at festivals, and other days of merriment.
The tro- vadory like the rest of the world, failed under the trials of prosperity. He became the curled darling of kings and nobles, and haggled over prices and salaries in the t rue spirit of "oun -ejninent.
These could not leave Ephraim alone: they too must wed his idols. To pose as a trovador became in certain great houses a family tradition. Grouped round the commanding figure of the Marques de Santillana stand the rivals of his own house-top : his grandfather, Pedro Gonzdlez de Mendoza ; his father, the Admiral Diego Furtado de Mendoza, a picaroon poet, spiteful, brutal, and witty ; his uncle, Pedro Vdez de Guevara, who turns you a song of roguery or devotion with equal indifference and mastery.
The world entire — tall, short, old, - young, nobles, serfs — did nought but make or hear verses, as that trovador errant, Vidal de Besalu, records.
It may be that Poggio's anecdote of a later time is literally true : that a poor man, absorbed in Hector's story, paid the spouter to adjourn the catastrophe from day to day till, his money being spent, he was forced to hear the end with tears.
With the juglar strolled the primitive actress, the juglaresay mentioned in the Libre del Apolonio, and branded as " infamous " in Alfonso's code of Las Siete Partidas, At the court of Juan II.
So much might be inferred from the introduction and passage of a law forbidding the ordination oi juglares; and, in the Cancioneiro Portuguez da Vaticana No.
The Villasandino, already mentioned, a pert Galician trovador at Juan ll. And in the last decline the executants were blind men who sang before church- doors and in public squares, lacing old ballads with what they were pleased to call "emendations," or, in other words, intruding original banalities of their own.
This decline of material prosperity had a most disastrous effect upon literature. A popular cantar or song was written by a poor man of genius.
More : re- peated by many lips during a long period of years, the form of a very popular cantar manifestly ran the risk of change so radical that within a few generations the original might be transformed in such wise as to be practically lost.
This fate has, in effect, overtaken the great body of early Spanish song. Two considerable cantares de gesta of the Cid survive as fragments, and they owe their lives to a happy accident — the accident of being written down.
They must have had fellows, but probably not an immense number of them, as in France. If the formal cantar de gesta died young, its spirit lived triumphantly in the set chronicle and in the brief romance.
In the chronicle the author aims at closer exactitude and finer detail, in the romance at swifter movement and at greater picturesqueness of artistic incident.
Count William of Poitiers. As the assertion is still made from time to time, it becomes necessary to say that it is unfounded. It is true that the rude cantar was never forgotten in Spain, and that its persistence partly explains the survival of asso- nance in Castilian long after its abandonment by the rest of Europe.
In his historic letter to Dom Pedro, Constable of Portugal, the Marquds de Santillana speaks with a student's contempt of singers who, "against all order, rule, and rhythm, invent these romances and cantares wherein common lewd fellows do take delight.
The numerous Cancioneros from Baena's time to the appearance of the Romancero General the First Part printed in , with additions in ; the Second Part issued in present a vast collection of admirable lyrics, mostly the work of accomplished courtly versifiers.
They contain very few examples of anything that can be justly called old popular songs. Alonso de Fuentes published in his Libro de los Cuarenta Cantos de Diversas y Peregrinas Historias, and in the following year was issued Lorenzo de Sepiilveda's selection.
Others may be of earlier date ; but it is impossible to identify them, inasmuch as they have been retouched and polished by singers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
There remains to say a last word on the disputed relation between the early Castilian and French litera- tures. The substitution of the Gallic for the Gothic character in the eleventh century ad- vanced one stage further a process begun by the French adventurers who shared in the reconquest.
With these last came the French jongleurs to teach the Spaniards the gentle art of making the chanson de geste.
The very phrase, cantar de gesta, bespeaks its French source. Another French touch appears in the Poem of Femdn GonzaleZy where the writer speaks of Charlemagne's defeat at Roncesvalles, and laments that the battle was not an encounter with the Moors, in which Bernaldo del Carpio might have scattered them.
But we are not left to conjecture and inference ; the presence of French jongleurs is attested by irrefragable evidence.
Even if they did, this would not explain the literary predominance of France. Charlemagne in Spain ; and Alfonso the Learned bears him out by deriding the songs and fables on these mythic triumphs, since the Emperor " at most conquered somewhat in Cantabria.
And this raises, obviously, a curious question. Marcelino Menendez y Pelayo, inclines to believe in their possible existence.
All that can be safely said is that Sefior Mendndez y Pelayo's theory is probable enough in itself, that it is presented with great ingenuity, that it is backed by the best authority that opinion can have, and that it is in- capable of proof or disproof in the absence of texts.
But if Spain, unlike Italy, has no authentic poems in an intermediate tongue, proofs of French influence are not lacking in her earliest movements.
Mary of Egypt is so gallicised in idiom that Mild y Fontanals, a ripe scholar and a true-blue Spaniard, was half inclined to think it one of those intermediary productions which are sought in vain.
At every point proofs of French guidance confront us. Snnpy-hnnk in the Vatican, we should probably find that the foreign mHuence was but a few degrees less marked in the one country than in the other.
As it is, Alfonso the Learned ranks with any Portuguese of them all ; and it is reasonable to think that he had fellows whose achievement and names have not reached us.
For Spanish literature and our- selves the loss is grave ; and yet we cannot conceive that there existed in early Castilian any examples com- parable in elaborate lyrical beauty to the cantars d'amigo which the Galician-Portuguese singers borrowed from the French ballettes.
In the first place, if they had existed, it is next to incredible that no example and no tradition of them should survive.
Next, the idea is intrinsically improbable, since the Castilian language was not yet sufficiently ductile for the purpose.
Moreover, from the outset there is a counter-current in Castile. The early Spanish legends are mostly concerned with Spanish subjects.
Apart from obvious foreign touches in the early recensions of the story of Bernaldo de Carpio who figures as Charlemagne's nephew , the tone of the ballads is hostile to the French, and, as is natural, the enmity grows more pronounced with time.
Thus, the balladist emphasises the fact that the faithless wife of Garci-Ferndndez is French ; and, again, when Sancho Garcfa's mother, like- wise French, appears in a rojnancey the singer gives her a blackamoor — an Arab — as a lover.
In considering early Spanish verse it behoves us to denote facts and to be chary in drawing inferences. It is not to be assumed that similarity of incident necessarily implies direct imitation.
His presence in the field may be — almost certainly is — an historic event, common enough in days when a militant bishop loved to head a charge ; and the chronicler may well have seen the exploits which he records.
Bats show differential distribution in relation to season, elevation, habitat, and forest strata. This study compared temporal and spatial bat diversity and ecology patterns between a lowland forest and a cloud forest in western Pacific Panami.
Bat communities were sampled monthly for 3. Data on climate and forest structure were measured in both sites.
Although both forests had similar annual and seasonal rainfall patterns, the cloud forest had higher annual and monthly amounts of rainfall; and lower mean, maximal, and minimal ambient temperatures.
The lowland forest had a taller, more closed canopy with less understory cover than the cloud forest. Bats in the lowland community clearly differentiated as either understory or canopy bats.
Bats in the cloud forest community were either canopy bats or used both strata equally. Some bat species departed from the male to female proportion in both forests, whereas other species varied the sex ratio viii with forest type and season.
Species richness did not vary with forest type or strata, whereas species abundance varied with both forest type and strata.
Results also showed similar total abundance between sites, but not between strata. The cloud forest bat community had higher evenness and species diversity than the lowland bat community.
Bat species richness and abundance varied with month, season, and year, and some of these temporal patterns varied with forests type and strata.
Bats' use of forest strata varied with species and season. The results suggest that bat communities are influenced by different factors including climate, forest structure, food availability, and competition.
Because of these characteristics, bats are a promising group to examine for factors that influence diversity and ecological patterns in tropical habitats.
Although the importance of tropical bats has long been recognized, few studies have been conducted on the community level Kalko This limited database made it difficult to answer fundamental questions about the high species diversity of tropical bats and their functional significance in the ecosystem Kalko Bats are difficult to study because of their flying capacity, nocturnal behavior, high diversity, and relative taxonomic uncertainty Findley , Kalko , Lim and Engstrom These difficulties have led to collection of data without standardized methods, thus limiting the potential for comparison among studies Kalko and establishing a weak theoretical framework.
Recent studies in the Neotropics show that published bat species lists are incomplete because sampling bias Kalko et al.
Some bat species fly in canopy or over the forest, making it difficult to sample with one method. However, comparative studies are now being conducted to identify latitudinal and altitudinal patterns in bat diversity, to identify mechanisms that structure bat communities, and to evaluate bats as potential indicators of ecosystem conditions in human-disturbed habitats.
To fill the gap in bat ecological 1 2 theory, it is necessary to gather new data from standardized, long-term studies that integrate a variety of inventory methods Kalko Because it is almost impossible to conduct experimental studies of bats on the community level, most studies rely on the comparative approach wherein general patterns can be identified by examining diversity and structure of species assemblages in different habitats Kalko The objective of this work is to examine how the diversity and ecological patterns of two bat communities in western Pacific Panami a lowland forest and a cloud forest vary spatially and temporally.
Bats show differential distribution in relation to season, elevation, habitat, and forest strata Handley , Bonaccorso , Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Fleming , Bernard , Kalko and Handley , Lim and Engstrom Studies showed that bat species richness in the Neotropics increases with rainfall and vegetation complexity in lowland forest, but decreases with elevation Koopman , Graham , Fleming a, Mufioz , , Patterson et al.
I conducted a 3. To accomplish a more complete bat inventory, I complemented my long-term understory and canopy mist-netting inventory with 3 months of acoustic inventory.
Bats, like Neotropical bees and birds, or North American granivorous rodents Karr and Freemark , Brown and Kurzius , Roubik may show differences in their species' response to environmental variability.
Bats are often highly variable in their behavior regarding abiotic and biotic factors Fenton In Chapter 2, I examine 3 the influence of season and forest type on the bat vertical stratification and adult sex ratio in these two communities by concentrating the analysis on the most common species of nectarivorous and frugivorous bats.
I gathered data on rainfall and ambient temperature as well as data in forest structure to discuss the possible influence of these factors on bat ecology.
The purpose of Chapter 2 was to evaluate the advantages of long-term sampling in both strata to detect variation in bat strata use and sex ratio that may influence bat diversity.
Currently, our knowledge of patterns and processes in bat communities is poor because of the lack of standardized, long-term comparative studies Kalko Previous studies have compared bat communities in terms of their biogeography, morphology, and ecology Fleming a, Findley , Stevens and Willig , using data collected in different years and with different methods.
These sampling biases may limit the ability of these studies to detect ecological patterns. By extending previous one-year bat studies, I described in Chapter 3 the temporal and spatial patterns of bat species richness and abundance in these forests to understand the diversity patterns in bat communities.
I also examined the ecological characteristics of species that correlate with distribution and abundance within and between sites, and compared the results from this study with results obtained in other Neotropical sites.
I discussed guild composition and structure with the purpose of identifying how resource differentiation may influence bat diversity in these sites.
Studies of sympatric bats in Neotropical forests show that differentiation of food, habitat, or temporal resources Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Kalko promote the coexistence of ecologically similar species.
Additionally, these studies showed that bat species, especially frugivores, seasonally fluctuate in their populations and switch 4 strata, suggesting that these patterns can be widespread among bats and can operate as a mechanism of coexistence.
In Chapter 4, I investigated the extent to which nectarivorous and frugivorous bat species differentiate in vertical and temporal components.
I mainly focused on species of the highly diverse and abundant bat genera: Artibeus, Sturnira, and Carollia. Because body size may influence strata use, I examined the correlation of vertical stratification with species body mass.
The effects of these environmental factors have implications for the feeding behavior and reproductive ecology of animals and therefore are important factors to consider for the conservation and management of biological diversity Karr et al.
However, because studies of the influence of environmental variability have not been undertaken in a wide diversity of habitats, the development of general principles is difficult Karr et al.
For example, it is difficult to show that rainfall is more important than temperature in regulating animal populations Grant and Grant Neotropical bats are an appropriate group to examine in studying the influence of environmental factors on animal ecology.
They are exposed to contrasting environments at small and large spatio-temporal scales as a result of their life history, three-dimensional habitat, and wide distribution Eisenberg , Willig and Mares , Findley , Jones Furthermore, New World bats play important roles as pollinators, seeddispersers, and predators of invertebrates and small vertebrates in different habitats Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Fleming , Willig and Mares , Findley , Kalko Bats have been considered good indicators of forest conditions because of 5 6 their sensibility to forest disturbance Johns et al.
Consequently, it is important to identify differential ecological responses that may indicate changing habits if we are to understand and conserve forest habitats.
Neotropical bats differ in their distribution and abundance in respond to season, elevation, habitat, and forest strata Bonaccorso , Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Bernard , Kalko and Handley , Lim and Engstrom Furthermore, capture rates of some species show significant differences between understory and canopy nets Kalko and Handley Changes in strata use are mainly related to tracking of food resources and changes in sex ratio may indicate reproductive constraints in one sex.
These differences in behavior may be used as indirect evidence of differential foraging and reproductive behavior Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Fleming , , Gardner et al.
For example, Carollia perspicillata in Costa Rica showed a male-skewed sex ratio during the dry season, a period of low food availability, when females migrate for energetic reasons to give birth in another site Fleming In Panami, the understory bat C.
Additionally, the sex ratio can give information about habitat change, social and reproductive structure, and survivorship Fleming , Estrada and Coates-Estrada , Stoner I intensively surveyed a lowland forest and a cloud forest for 3.
This was accomplished by concentrating on the most common species of nectarivorous and frugivorous bats 7 captured in these forests.
Additionally, I measured rainfall, ambient temperature, and forest structure to see if these factors are related to variability of bat ecology.
The lowland site was Cerro Batipa 80 20' The site lies in a tropical moist forest life zone Tosi and has a tropical climate with a prolonged dry season McKay based on De Martonne This climate has a mean annual ambient temperature of The study region is in the Province of Chiriquf, western Pacific Panamd.
Caribbean Sea Boc de Toro R. Fortuna fi U1 C ica David. Figure These forests are found along an elevational transect within the Gualaca Altitudinal Biological Corridor.
The reserve ranges in elevation from m Dfaz , but the study site spans an elevational range of m. Fortuna has two life zones Tosi , Diaz , premontane wet forest and lower wet mountain forest.
It shows a montane oceanic climate McKay based on De Martonne , with mean annual ambient temperature of C and annual rainfall of mm Cavelier , McKay The reserve comprises 19, ha of continuous lower mountain rainforest Cavelier , Diaz , classified as a tropical ombrophilous shade-tolerant cloud forest Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg The forest canopy is m in height, with an open canopy and emergent trees of 40 m, and a dense understory Cavelier Anthurium and Monstera are abundant, as are vines and lianas, but there are few bromeliads.
Epiphytic bryophytes are present, but are not as abundant as Araceae. Cyclanthaceae, Arecaceae, and Piperaceae are common in the understory, as well as tree ferns Mayo et al.
Both study sites are important for conserving biodiversity and establishing biological corridors in Panami. Batipa is the second-largest remaining fragment of lowland forest in Chiriqui Tovar , and Fortuna is one of the best-preserved mountain forests in Panami Diaz I sampled each bat community with mist nets for 1 to 4 nights monthly, depending on weather.
Ten sampling stations were established in the lowlands and seven in the cloud forest. Each station was sampled for 1 to 2 nights with eight 2.
Nets were opened usually from sunset h to midnight h and checked every min. Total sampling involved mist net hours mnh during nights lowlands mnh during nights, cloud forest mnh during nights.
Captured bats were placed in individual cloth bags, identified, marked, and released within 1 hour of capture. Bat species identification was based on keys for Panamanian lowland and western highland bats C.
Handley manuscripts and a field guide of Central American mammals Reid Only adult and subadult bats were marked Chapter 3.
I recorded species, sex, age, reproductive condition, forearm length, body mass, hour, and location station, net number, and strata.
The use of mist nets to study bat or avian ecology has advantages and disadvantages LaVal , Fleming et al. Some advantages for assessing ecological information are that species can be properly identified, individuals can be measured, and their relative abundance can be estimated.
Disadvantages are that capture rates are influenced by factors other than the relative abundance of the animal. These factors include weather, net location, variability in net 12 Figure Arrangement of mist nets in sampling stations.
Mist nets were set in pairs, one in the understory m , the other in the canopy m. Remsen and Good suggested long-term studies on marked individuals overcome some of these disadvantages.
My study reduced some negative biases of mist nets because it was a long-term study 3. Rainfall and Temperature Records I obtained local records of rainfall and temperature data from the Empresa de Transmisi6n Electrica S.
I have 4 years of records for annual and monthly rainfall from the cloud forest m and from Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias 35 in , which is 20 km from the study site in the lowlands.
The records for ambient temperature Ta include 4 years of annual and monthly means, maximal Tamax , and minimal Tamin temperatures from FCA in the lowlands and the cloud forest.
Forest Structure Measurements I measured the following attributes to describe forest structure: basal area, tree height, understory cover, canopy cover, and slope, in four plots at each study site.
In , I established two 20 x 50 m 0. One plot was at the beginning of the station near the first mist nets, and the other was at the end near the last mist nets.
I measured the diameter at breast height DBH, stem diameter at 1. I measured the heights of the five tallest trees in each plot with a clinometer.
I divided each plot into five 50 m transects spaced 5 m apart 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 m and randomly chose one transect from the three interior ones 5, 10, or 15 m to measure understory and canopy cover percentages.
I applied the line intercept method to calculate the percentage of segments intercepted by the vegetation in the understory and a concave spherical crown densiometer for each 10 m of the transect, avoiding the borders, for calculating the amount of canopy cover.
In each plot, the slope of the terrain was also calculated with a clinometer at a mean distance of 12 m. Data Analysis Mean relative abundance of species was estimated from 3 years of data as the number of monthly individuals captured per mist netting effort for total, season, strata, and sex.
The months of July through December were not included in this analysis. For the seasonal analysis, seasons were defined as the dry season, from January to April; the early rainy season, from May to August; and the late rainy season, from September to December.
A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate differences in this index over years, across seasons, and between strata and forests for the most abundant nectarivores and frugivores Sall and Lehman A heterogeneity G2 goodness-of-fit test was used to determine differences in strata preference among seasons and differences in sex ratio according to season and strata.
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